Hard Naturalism and its Puzzles

Zacharoula Renia Gasparatou


Eliminative “hard” naturalism is a form of naturalism that is very up to date today
in philosophy of mind and metaphysics. It endorses the elimination of all mental
language from our everyday vocabulary, claiming that science will prove that mental
terms refer to pseudo-entities. I will argue that even though hard naturalists
strongly depend on science, they can hardly account for the evolution of science: For
the time being all ordinary language is mediated by mental concepts and explanations.
It is through them that today’s scientists are trained. If we accuse them of being
void, we can no longer sensibly train today’s scientists. Neither can we sensibly
articulate today’s hypotheses or theories. I will suggest that the very primacy
ascribed to science’s explanatory methods makes it harder for eliminate naturalists
to explain how science is communicated and evolved.


philosophy; 20th century philosophy; naturalism; folk psychology; ordinary language; common sense; eliminativism

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