The Evolution of Morals

Andrew Oldenquist


The evolution of morals is explained in terms of (1) the evolution of innate human
sociality and its bearing on morals, and (2) bridge theories which give usage
descriptions of moral terms. From facts about innate sociality and language I shall
derive “S believes A is wrong,” but not “A is wrong.” Social morality evolved as a
combination of group egoism and impartial morality, each explainable causally in
terms of evolved human sociality. Another bridge theory gives conditions under which
revenge turns into retributive justice.


philosophy; 20th century philosophy; Wittgenstein Ludwig; anthropology; altruism; egoism; human; animal

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